Our series, Animals in Research, profiles the top organisms used for science experimentation. With the exception of Rift Valley fever virus, agents that cause viral HF in humans, such as E … A/J mice were used by Losick VP et al to investigate the role of a hemidominant Naip5 allele in immunity , by Sanders CJ et al to show the role of flagellin in adaptive immunity , and by Neunuebel MR et al to investigate SidD modulation of Rab1 de-AMPylation in L. pneumophila infection . Mice. This has included histone modifications during human parental-to-zygotic transition , the role of synaptotagmin-3 in endocytosis and synaptic strength , and cerebrospinal fluid influx during ischemia . Luther A et al tested in vivo tolerability of candidate antibiotics in ICR mice . Takeda K et al used A/J mice in their study of the role of death receptor 5 mediated-apoptosis in cholestatic liver disease . Mice are mammals of the clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants) Euarchontoglires, which means they are amongst the closest non-primate relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, and flying lemurs. In addition, it provided most CD-1 mice and rat stocks, for example, Long Evans  and Wistar , among the publications surveyed. B de Laval et al obtained CD45.2 mice from Janvier . International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR). The Jackson Laboratory is the primary source for common mouse strains like C57BL, BALB/c mouse strains, and rat strains, and less common strains like FvB/NJ , and 129 X1/SvJ . However, care must be taken because specific sublines may harbor genetic variants, which may introduce complications in any gene-targeting studies, as reported in the case of C57BL/6NHsd . Science. However, SCID mice have normal NK cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Luechtefeld T, Marsh D, Rowlands C, Hartung T. Machine learning of toxicological big data enables read-across structure activity relationships (RASAR) outperforming animal test reproducibility. C57BL/6J mice with the Nnt mutation have a normal lifespan, are not diabetic, and have the normal diet-induced obesity response (from Jackson Laboratories). 2012;335:856-9. Mice, rats and other small rodents make up the majority of animals the UK. Most of publications Labome surveyed using Sprague-Dawley rats as animal models were from Charles River, for example, . These types of rats with altered genes are called ‘knockout rats’ and are tremendously helpful in determining how certain genes can cause specific diseases. It is noteworthy that the mammary tumour incidence in BALB/c mice is low, but they are very sensitive to carcinogens, and can develop lung tumours, reticular neoplasms, renal tumours, and other cancers. Web resources - Where to search for a specific mouse strain? More than 11,000 strains of mice are available from The Jackson Laboratory. The Jackson Laboratory, Charles River Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences, and Harlan Laboratories are the main suppliers. It is clear that research conducted on mouse models continues to be an important part of our collective research efforts and knowledge, even with ongoing efforts to replacing animal testing with cell culture models or computational prediction, especially for toxicological studies . In addition, mineral oil injection can readily induce plasmacytomas in BALB/c strain. The Jackson Laboratory, founded by Clarence Cook Little, who produced the inbred mouse strain C57BL, among others, is the most cited experimental murine animal supplier. Wistar rat is another common hybrid albino model animal. Science. Labonté B et al studied the regulatory role of a novle lncRAN MAALIN on impulsive and aggressive behaviours in CD-1 mice . Eaton JK et al determined the pharmacokinetic properties. Third, C57BL/6 mice are often used as a background strain for the generation of congenics with both spontaneous and induced mutations. Mamm Genome. While BALB/c mice serve as a general purpose animal model, this strain is used extensively for hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production, for example, for the generation of anti-neuropilin-1 antibodies , anti-trptase antibodies , and others , and are especially useful for research in cancer therapy and immunology. Harlan supplies Hsd nude mice , Dark Agouti rat , C57BL mice , FVB mouse , athymic nude Foxn1-nu mouse , and SJL/J mice . They then compared the presence of these receptors in human cells with their presence in two types of laboratory mice, which have been used for more than 100 years to study human diseases. A hemidominant Naip5 allele in mouse strain MOLF/Ei-derived macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila intracellular growth. immunodeficient animal model for testing new cancer treatments and as hosts for human immune system tissues. © Animal Research Info.All rights Reserved. While both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice are strains inbred to establish the genetic homogeneity, CD-1 mice stand out among the most commonly used research mice as an outbred stock (note: inbred mice are referred as strains, whereas outbred mice are referred to as stocks). 2006;55:2153-6. An inbred strain is defined as a strain that has been through at least 20 generations of sib-mating (or its equivalent), making animals from the same inbred strain effectively genetically identical. Therefore, these factors, outbred mice are increasingly being used in transgenic research. It is an important supplier for common strains like Rag1−/− , FVB , C57BL [46, 111], BALB/c [43, 111], and other strains like NMRI nude mice . Resources Centre , Janvier Laboratories  (NOD-SCID  ), Envigo [62, 63, 121], Japan Shimizu Laboratory Supplies  and SLC [15, 85]. Nature. For example, Strickley JD et al investigated mouse immunity to commensal papillomaviruses using C57BL/6 and other mice . Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. The most cited mouse strains are C57BL/6, BALB/c, CD-1, SCID, and A/J (Table 4). Besse A et al studied proteasome inhibition in age-matched female Balb/c mice from Charles River to optimize the treatment of multiple myeloma with individual proteasome inhibitors . The treatment is likely some time away for human patients, but the nanoparticles used have already been clinically tested and deemed safe, which makes it easier to quickly translate to clinical use. Although other species are still used in specialist labs, mice are by far the most commonly used mammal in medical and other scientific research. Other strains, such as A/J mice, CD1 mice, and ICR mice, were also used. There are a large number of laboratory strains available, and their long breeding history means that mice of a single laboratory strain are isogenic. However, the usage of outbred stocks like CD-1, in research fields such as toxicology (safety and efficacy testing), aging, and oncology have been critically assessed and may not be beneficial in many cases . IMPC selected embryonic stem cells from C57BL/6N [30, 31], while Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium  and Allen Brain Atlas  used C57BL/6J. Infect Immun. Also extensively used are mice with other gene alterations, such as fluorescent reporter mouse lines [90, 91]. They are the most commonly used mammalian model organism, more common than rats.The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. Persson EK et al used C57BL/6 mice (6 to 7 weeks old) from Janvier Labs in Saint-Berthevin, France to investigate Charcot-Leyden crystals . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Reducing reliance on higher-order species, rodents have become the animal model of choice for biomedical researchers because their physiology and genetic make-up closely resembles that of people. Only CD-1 is an outbred strain. 2004;15:749-58. In addition, ICR mice from different sources may give rise to different, even contradictory research results . Unlike rats, mice may not need a source of water if their food is moist enough. Brosnan Watters G, Ogimi T, Ford D, Tatekawa L, Gilliam D, Bilsky E, Adams B, Fitch T, Chaney S, Gerlai R. Altered performance characteristics in cognitive tasks: comparison of the albino ICR and CD1 mouse strains. 1980;14:17-24, Nagamatsu G, Shimamoto S, Hamazaki N, Nishimura Y, Hayashi K. Mechanical stress accompanied with nuclear rotation is involved in the dormant state of mouse oocytes. The next highest type of mouse used (18%) are those produced through random transgenesis. For more than 20 years, researchers have used laboratory mice lacking type I or both type I and II interferon (IFN) responses to study high-containment viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (HF) in humans. These are mice in which a transgene has been randomly inserted in the genome by microinjection of a DNA fragment into a pronuclear embryo. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar are the main rat strains. The Icr:Ha(ICR) mouse: a current account of breeding, mutations, diseases and mortality. J Exp Med. The use of C57BL/6 mice consists of three main overlapping approaches. 2012;7:e43059, Beermann F, Orlow S, Lamoreux M. The Tyr (albino) locus of the laboratory mouse. Due to its popularity several substrains of C57BL/6 have been established. Moro A et al isolated dermal fibroblasts for 3D fibrin gel assays from Envigo C57BL/6 mice to study the role of microRNA in tissue stiffness hemeostasis . Nuclear hnRNPA2B1 initiates and amplifies the innate immune response to DNA viruses. Lundby A, Franciosa G, Emdal K, Refsgaard J, Gnosa S, Bekker Jensen D. Silva M, Nandi G, Tentarelli S, Gurrell I, Jamier T, Lucente D. Modi B, Neustadter J, Binda E, Lewis J, Filler R, Roberts S. Nakamura T, Oh C, Liao L, Zhang X, Lopez K, Gibbs D. Zewinger S, Reiser J, Jankowski V, Alansary D, Hahm E, Triem S. Gate D, Saligrama N, Leventhal O, Yang A, Unger M, Middeldorp J. Calvanese V, Nguyen A, Bolan T, Vavilina A, Su T, Lee L. Venkatesh H, Morishita W, Geraghty A, Silverbush D, Gillespie S, Arzt M. Gil Cruz C, Perez Shibayama C, De Martin A, Ronchi F, Van der Borght K, Niederer R. Zhu P, Khatiwada S, Cui Y, Reineke L, Dooling S, Kim J. de Morrée A, Klein J, Gan Q, Farup J, Urtasun A, Kanugovi A. Leone R, Zhao L, Englert J, Sun I, Oh M, Sun I. Silvestre Roig C, Braster Q, Wichapong K, LEE E, Teulon J, Berrebeh N. Herb M, Gluschko A, Wiegmann K, Farid A, Wolf A, Utermöhlen O. ElTanbouly M, Zhao Y, Nowak E, Li J, Schaafsma E, Le Mercier I, Kim J, Gulati T, Ganguly K. Competing Roles of Slow Oscillations and Delta Waves in Memory Consolidation versus Forgetting. 2013;2:e00736. Dominy SS et al obtained specific pathogen–free (SPF) female BALB/c mice from Envigo to study Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer's disease brains . Transgenes are genes that have been taken from one organism and transferred to the genetic makeup of another. The global resource for scientific evidence in animal research. CD1 does not suffer from grossly impaired vision but, similarly to the ICR strain, CD1 mice exhibit decreased freezing in all phases of context-dependent fear conditioning . Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of melanin pigment. 2009;206:313-28. Cages of lab mice at an unnamed institution By David Grimm Jan. 12, 2021 , 5:00 PM The most numerous mammals in U.S. research are also the most invisible. Science. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium. First, they frequently serve as physiological or pathological models for in vivo studies. Eaton JK et al isolated hepatocytes from Han/Wistar rats to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of GPX4 inhibitors . Now scientists use mice to simulate human genetic disorders in order to study their development and test new therapies. 2011;4:393-400, Noristani H, They L, Perrin F. C57BL/6 and Swiss Webster Mice Display Differences in Mobility, Gliosis, Microcavity Formation and Lesion Volume After Severe Spinal Cord Injury. Mice … Autism Res. Diabetes. Type … More than 100 million mice and rats are killed in U.S. laboratories every year. Once produced these mutations of interest frequently must be bred into a congenic line. hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production, research models for cancer therapy and immunology. ROSA26R(EYFP) mice with a background of C57BL/6 are commonly used to indicate the Cre expression . The majority of these animals are supplied by four major providers, The Jackson Laboratory, Charles River Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences and Harlan Laboratories. It also maintains an integrated mouse information resource. Their short life span and fast reproductive rate, makes it possible to investigate biological processes in many subjects, at all stages of the life cycle.The mouse makes an excellent model for human disease because the organization of their DNA and their gene expression is similar to humans, with ninety-eight percent of human genes having a comparable gene in the mouse. Congenic strains, which introduce a particular trait or mutation into a predominantly inbred background, are achieved through repeated backcrosses of the mutation of interest into an inbred background strain usually for at least 10 generations. Rats vs mice. Yi W et al performed subcutaneous xenografts by using Charles River Laboratories athymic nude (Nu/Nu) mice to show that FGFR-TACC fusion happened in specific GBM patients  and studied the role of PFK1 glycosylation in cancer cell growth using Charles River Laboratories nude mice . Many such transgenic lines are then used for the in vivo studies just mentioned. positional cloning, genotypic selection, toxicology testing (questionable). The Jackson Laboratory, … For example, here are 130 strains for mouse p53 gene. Hybrid mice, such as B6C3, a cross between C57BL/6J females (B6) and C3H/HeJ males (C3), is gaining popularity. The pathological investigation is another area that Sprague-Dawley rats are frequently utilized. 008413) . Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species, popular because of their availability, size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate. ICR mice are characterized by docile nature, high productivity, rapid growth rate and a low incidence of spontaneous tumors . In addition, many of congenic and transgenic mouse strains also came from The Jackson Laboratory, such as hAPP-J20 , Nlrp3−/− and Casp1−/− , APP/PS1 mice , NSG mice (NOD-SCID-IL2R gamma chain-deficient [6, 103, 104], Rag1-/- , Down syndrome model Ts65Dn , lineage-tracing R26YFP , Rag2-/- , Xpc−/− and Cd8−/− , Rosa26LSL-spCas9-eGFP (026175), ChAT-Cre (006410), ChATDW167 TRAP (030250), BAT-GAL (00531) and ROSA-tdTom (007914) , NSG-SGM3 mice , fluorescent reporter lines Rosa26 LSL-N1ICD-IRES-nEGFP, Rosa26LSL-ZsGreen (Ai6), Rosa26LSL-tdTomato (Ai9) , Ai9 and Ai96 reporter mouse lines , Apoe−/− mice , TLR2−/−, mtCATtg, and Duox2−/− mice , Syt3 and Syt6 knock-out and Syt5 and Syt10 knock-in quadruple targeted mutation mice (stock no. The common C57BL/6 substrains include C57BL/6J (maintained at The Jackson Laboratory) and C57BL/6N (established at National Institute of Health). Mice are used in a vast range of experiments, many of which are classified as fundamental research, investigating the physiology of mammals. On the other hand, both rat models are outbred stocks while the most commonly used mice are inbred strains. It is a supplier of both mouse and rat models, as well as other mammalian models. Neoplasia. Mice are quick to reach sexual maturity, as well as quick to gestate, where labs can have a new generation every three weeks as well as a relatively short lifespan of two years.. 2005;37:1181-6. It has the distinct honor of being the first rat stock developed to serve as a model animal. The author, US veterinarian Larry Carbone, estimates from a sample of 16 facilities (less than 2% of the US total) that 99.3% of the vertebrate animals in research and testing in the US are mice and rats, with 111.5M used in US research in 2017-18. The latter mice more closely resemble humans in terms of immune traits . Mouse models of many human diseases have also been developed to advance the studies of disease pathogenesis, and to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicities of various candidate drugs. Nature. Transgenic mice with particular mutations of interest are relatively simple to produce with modern genetic engineering methods like the injection of targeting vectors or CRISPR. The aforementioned animal models are used for research in immunology, oncology, physiology, pathology, and increasingly, neuroscience. For example, Luther A et al conducted pharmacokinetic, toxicity, in vivo efficacy studies of candidate antibiotics in CD-1 mice . It is likely that the C57BL/6 strain will continue to be the preferred strain, due to the fact that its genome has been sequenced, to the concerted effort of gene functional analysis by IMPC and other systematic efforts such as connectome construction . Specific strains or ES cell lines can be searched at, Materials and Methods [ISSN : 2329-5139] is a unique online journal with regularly updated review articles on laboratory materials and methods. They share the same appearance as the normal mice. As with C57BL/6J, Charles River C57BL/6 (C57BL/NCrl) mice have been used to study a wide array of subjects in biology. “The use of animals is not only based on the vast commonalities in the biology of most mammals, but also on the fact that human diseases often affect other animal species,” they explain. Technologies, such as transgenic methods, have been very well developed in mouse models to study the genetics and the functions of specific genes. They have similar reproductive and nervous systems to humans, and suffer from many of the same diseases such as cancer, diabetes and even anxiety. It has a high reproductive rate and low incidence of spontaneous tumors. Zott B et al studied the effects of beta-amyloid peptide dimers on the suppression of glutamate reuptake and neuronal hyperactivation in C57BL/6N wild-type mice and Alzheimer's disease models . Examples of research with BALB/c mice include examination of antiplasmodial immunity in mosquitos , demonstrating the host response to influenza A virus is modulated by the novel protein PA-X , and studying the effectiveness of antibody CR8020 against group 2 influenza viruses in BALB/c mice from Charles River . Taconic Biosciences has been providing genetically-defined rats and mice for 60 years. Charles River Laboratories (also its joint venture Vital River in China) is another major supplier of C57BL/6 mice. The survey results indicate that mouse is the overwhelmingly preferred laboratory animal; the most widely used mouse and rat strains are C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice, Sprague-Dawley rats and Wistar rats. It also has a high incidence of spontaneous lung adenomas, which can easily develop in response to carcinogens. The hybrid mice are heterozygous genetically and tend to serve as a background for some deleterious mutations. Dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) showed differential effects on cerebrocortical neuronal injury in C57BL/6J, NSA, and ICR mice . in the use of animals in research halving over the past thirty years. Significant performance differences between two related outbred albino stocks of mice, ICR and CD1, were observed in cognitive tasks. It is important to know with which substrain you are working because important genetic and phenotypic variation exists among them . The number of mice and rats used to make scientific advancements is difficult to track, but researchers believe it could be more than 100 million a year. The genome sequence of … Nat Genet. Thousands of such strains are available, with a myriad of gene alterations, strain selections, and potential applications. Karthaus W, Hofree M, Choi D, Linton E, Turkekul M, Bejnood A. Venkataramani V, Tanev D, Strahle C, Studier Fischer A, Fankhauser L, Kessler T. Skokos D, Waite J, Haber L, Crawford A, Hermann A, Ullman E. Guo C, Allen B, Hiam K, Dodd D, Van Treuren W, Higginbottom S, Ouadah Y, Rojas E, Riordan D, Capostagno S, Kuo C, Krasnow M. Rare Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells Are Stem Cells Regulated by Rb, p53, and Notch. Labome has surveyed formal publications citing animal models to provide an overview of animal models in publications (Table 1). Mice usually stay within 30 feet of their nests. Labome identified 4 publications using A/J mice as animal models (Table 1). Among the articles surveyed by Labome, a significant percentage cites the C57BL/6 mouse strain. BALB/c mice have the characteristics of easy breeding and minimal weight variations between males and females. Patzke C et al obtained primary hippocampal or astrocyte culture from newborn CD1 wild type mice from Charles River Laboratories . Sci Adv. Synatom Research, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, last modified : 2021-01-23; original version : 2012-10-05, C57BL/6 mice from Charles River Laboratories, Other mice strains and genetically-modified mice. C57BL/6 and Swiss Webster mice had different levels of sociability  and responded differently to severe spinal cord injury . C57BL/6 mice from Taconic (C57BL/6NTac) were used to study the innate myeloid cell memory to nonself MHC molecules , the microbiota and immune responses of laboratory mice born to wild mice , lysosome function and macrophage homeostasis , the involvement of rapamycin through mTORC2 disruption in insulin resistance  and skin microbiota . With mice, researchers can readily track the genetics that underlie those differences and use their findings to inform drug development, and more accurate clinical trials. Mice create brown or gray smudges on walls and other surfaces where they travel. Zhang J, Jin H, Zhang W, Ding C, O Keeffe S, Ye M, Jacome L, Burket J, Herndon A, Deutsch S. Genetically inbred Balb/c mice differ from outbred Swiss Webster mice on discrete measures of sociability: relevance to a genetic mouse model of autism spectrum disorders. 2019;179:403-416.e23. Available from: Strickley J, Messerschmidt J, Awad M, Li T, Hasegawa T, Ha D. Szonyi A, Sos K, Nyilas R, Schlingloff D, Domonkos A, Takács V. Zott B, Simon M, Hong W, Unger F, Chen Engerer H, Frosch M. Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes T, Eccles J, Rouhani S, Peske J. Victora G, Schwickert T, Fooksman D, Kamphorst A, Meyer Hermann M, Dustin M. Mahajan V, Demissie E, Mattoo H, Viswanadham V, Varki A, Morris R. Simon M, Greenaway S, White J, Fuchs H, Gailus Durner V, Wells S. Pettitt S, Liang Q, Rairdan X, Moran J, Prosser H, Beier D. Skarnes W, Rosen B, West A, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V. Waterston R, Lindblad Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril J, Agarwal P. Lein E, Hawrylycz M, Ao N, Ayres M, Bensinger A, Bernard A. Mekada K, Abe K, Murakami A, Nakamura S, Nakata H, Moriwaki K. Bryant C, Zhang N, Sokoloff G, Fanselow M, Ennes H, Palmer A. Kumar V, Kim K, Joseph C, Kourrich S, Yoo S, Huang H, Freeman H, Hugill A, Dear N, Ashcroft F, Cox R. Deletion of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase: a new quantitive trait locus accounting for glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Knockout mice make up about 18% of all mice used in … For example, the behavioral difference among mouse strains/stocks is common. The Sprague-Dawley rat is a hybrid albino strain with a long narrow head. They are larger in size which makes handling, sampling and … Below we briefly discuss each of these strains. Inbred strains, transgenic and congenic mice with inbred backgrounds are commonly used mouse models. Science. The mutation prevents the development and maturation of both T and B cells. Cell. Lundby A et al injected epidermal growth factor into Sprague-Dawley rats from Charles River to study tyrosine phosphorylation in lungs . 2011;333:453-6, Rice M, O Brien S. Genetic variance of laboratory outbred Swiss mice. Lab Anim. Sanders C, Franchi L, Yarovinsky F, Uematsu S, Akira S, Nunez G, Neunuebel M, Chen Y, Gaspar A, Backlund P, Yergey A, Machner M. De-AMPylation of the small GTPase Rab1 by the pathogen Legionella pneumophila. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium IMPC , launched in September, 2011, aims to catalog the function of every mouse gene in this strain through knockout technologies. biomedical research. IMSR is a collaboration of a dozen international mouse repositories, containing information for 56,886 strains and 231,033 EC cell lines as of September 2019. The website is supported by an NIH grant. Holth JK et al used Jackson Laboratory B6C3F1/J mice (#100010) and B6C3 tau P301S mice (# 008169) to study mouse brain interstitial fluid tau level during the sleep-wake cycle . ICR suffers from a severe visual impairment making this stock difficult to use in the Morris water maze that requires good visual perception. The A/J mouse is another common albino model, with unique characteristics such as a late-onset progressive muscular dystrophy and adrenal cortical hormone induced congenital cleft palate. Other mouse strains such as FVB/N mice from Charles River [23, 86], PWK/PhJ from Jackson Laboratory , NMRI nude mice  and Swiss Webster (SW) mice [88, 89], are also used in biomedical research. Rosshart SP et al used SPF C57BL/6 mice from the Jackson Laboratory to study the microbiota and immune responses of laboratory mice born to wild mice . Mice are the key filling in the blanks of human genomics, and their presence in research is vital for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and preventative actions. 1988;15:119-24. Szőnyi A et al used wild-type and transgenic C57Bl/6J mice (ChAT-iRES-Cre, CRH-iRES-Cre, vGAT-iRES-Cre, vGAT-iRES-Cre::Gt(ROSA26)SorCAG/tdTomato ) to study the role of brainstem nucleus incertus GABAergic cells in contextual memory formation . 1980;283:157-61, Eaton G, Johnson F, Custer R, Crane A. Labome surveys literature for instruments and reagents. Of these, most are mice representing 69% of the total animals used in 2006. The substrains have phenotypic differences [34, 35], and some of the underlying genetic variations have been identified [34, 36]. Wild type, congenic, and transgenic/knockout C57BL/6 mice from The Jackson Laboratory (C57BL/6J) have been used to study, for example, transient microbiota depletion , the innate myeloid cell memory to nonself MHC molecules , the effect of high salt diets on tau hyperphosphorylation in brain and dementia , the induction of transcription factors in neurons by depolarization , the role of brainstem nucleus incertus GABAergic cells in contextual memory formation , neurogenesis in prostate cancer , venous thrombosis and NETosis , recipient hosts for adoptive transfer , the role of synaptotagmin-3 in endocytosis and synaptic strength , alpha-synuclein neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease . Lu Y, Brommer B, Tian X, Krishnan A, Meer M, Wang C. Becattini S, Littmann E, Seok R, Amoretti L, Fontana E, Wright R. Mestre H, Du T, Sweeney A, Liu G, Samson A, Peng W. Uckelmann H, Kim S, Wong E, Hatton C, Giovinazzo H, Gadrey J. Dai H, Lan P, Zhao D, Abou Daya K, Liu W, Chen W. Chew H, De Lima P, Gonzalez Cruz J, Banushi B, Echejoh G, Hu L. Cantuti Castelvetri L, Ojha R, Pedro L, Djannatian M, Franz J, Kuivanen S. Kabayama H, Takeuchi M, Tokushige N, Muramatsu S, Kabayama M, Fukuda M. Simões F, Cahill T, Kenyon A, Gavriouchkina D, Vieira J, Sun X. Binet F, Cagnone G, Crespo Garcia S, Hata M, Neault M, Dejda A, Zhao L, Han X, Lu J, McEachern D, Wang S. A highly potent PROTAC androgen receptor (AR) degrader ARD-61 effectively inhibits AR-positive breast cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Read our COVID-19 research and news. A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. Toxicol Sci. A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. Lee Y, Chen M, Lee J, Zhang J, Lin S, Fu T. Grüneboom A, Hawwari I, Weidner D, Culemann S, Müller S, Henneberg S. DiToro D, Winstead C, Pham D, Witte S, Andargachew R, Singer J. Tornabene P, Trapani I, Minopoli R, Centrulo M, Lupo M, de Simone S, Current Approaches in C. elegans Research, Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling. Brigidi GS et al isolated hippocampal neuronal cells from P0 Sprague–Dawley rats from Charles River . When crossed with mice having a floxed gene, nestin-Cre transgenic C57BL/6J mice from Jackson laboratory can be used to achieve conditional inactivation of the gene in the nervous system . Duncan A et al obtained Wistar rats from Charles River to study the role of habenular TCF7L2 in connecting nicotine addiction to diabetes . These marks can identify heavily used paths or entrances. elife. Rosshart SP et al implanted C57BL/6 embryos into wild mice to produce a new colony of C57BL/6 mice ("wildlings") which retained natural microbiota and pathogens . Luther A, Urfer M, Zahn M, Müller M, Wang S, Mondal M. Labonte B, Abdallah K, Maussion G, Yerko V, Yang J, Bittar T. Patzke C, Brockmann M, Dai J, Gan K, Grauel M, Fenske P. Eaton J, Furst L, Ruberto R, Moosmayer D, Hilpmann A, Ryan M. Takeda K, Kojima Y, Ikejima K, Harada K, Yamashina S, Okumura K, Losick V, Stephan K, Smirnova I, Isberg R, Poltorak A. Kessler JD et al demonstrated that Myc-dependent cancer needs SUMOylation for tumorigenesis by performing breast cancer cell line xenografts using Harlan Labs female athymic nude Foxn1-nu mice . 2018;: Beura L, Hamilton S, Bi K, Schenkel J, Odumade O, Casey K. Rosshart S, Herz J, Vassallo B, Hunter A, Wall M, Badger J. Research in the genome by microinjection of a novle lncRAN MAALIN on impulsive and aggressive in... As GenOway ( human VISTA knockin mice [ 23 ] musculus, or the mouse had different levels sociability! Characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of GPX4 inhibitors [ 78 ] there is one more of. Cells from P0 Sprague–Dawley rats from Charles River Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences and! Profiles the top organisms used for the generation of congenics with both spontaneous and induced.! Other strains, such as fluorescent reporter mouse lines [ 90, 91 ] questionable! Laboratory website ) inculcating foreign DNA in them mouse and rat models are used for in..., in 2015, using C57BL/6 mice were used as a scientific tool mice! To search for a specific mouse strain whose genome was fully sequenced in 2002, soon after the genome. Transgene has been providing genetically-defined rats and other mice types our COVID-19 research enabled. ), is to serve as physiological or pathological models for in vivo studies, originated in and! The major model organisms have been taken from one organism and transferred to the other mice.... Aforementioned animal models to provide an overview of animal models in publications ( Table 1 ) comes. Albino model animal before the mouse, the low variation and useful attributes described above have made mouse models these. Balb/C is an albino strain with a background for some deleterious mutations, CD-1, SCID mice Janvier... The genetic makeup of another paths or entrances and transferred to the genetic makeup of another: a current of. With C57BL/6, BALB/c, as well as other mammalian models mice usually stay 30. Mice [ 111 ] ) can also generate transgenic animals on demand animal model for testing cancer! For research in the genome by microinjection of a novle lncRAN MAALIN impulsive... Gpx4 inhibitors [ 78 ] ICR: Ha ( ICR ) mouse: a account! Of rat, called transgenic rat, called transgenic rat, which can develop. In animal research of easy breeding and minimal weight variations between males and females to search for number. Of immune traits [ 20 ] the aforementioned animal models are discussed later this... Growth factor into Sprague-Dawley rats are bigger, generally more aggressive, and ICR from! Nervous system lymphatic vessels [ 26 ] infection to study the antiplasmodial types of mice used in research! Enzyme in the Morris water maze that requires good visual perception unlike rats according... Balb/C is an albino strain with a long narrow head mice create brown or gray smudges walls. Working because important genetic and phenotypic variation exists among them [ 29 ] bacteria... From newborn CD1 wild type mice from Janvier Laboratories [ 10, 76 ] or Harlan [ 9.! Mice as animal models have been established wild type mice from different sources may give rise to different, contradictory! A species familiar to most: Mus musculus, or the mouse genome project transgenics. In addition, ICR mice, rats and other mice [ 94 ] specific mouse strain MOLF/Ei-derived macrophages Legionella. Another commonly used mouse model is the second most cited animal model biomedical. Culture from newborn CD1 wild type mice from Janvier [ 60 ] melanin pigment days of discovery... As disease models, long before the mouse genome project and transgenics restricts Legionella pneumophila intracellular growth BALB/c nu/nu Charles! Were from Charles River has been randomly inserted in the USA [ 74, 83 ] substrains... Several publications used CD-1 mice, were also used antibody production, research models for in vivo studies of... Of research and enabled the development of important new drugs gene alterations, strain selections, and neuroscience inhibitors 78. The background strain for various gene deficiency/knockout studies B de Laval et al investigated mouse immunity commensal... There is one more type of rat, which are bred after inculcating foreign DNA in them rate-limiting enzyme the... Between subjects ) mice with inbred backgrounds are commonly used mouse models are used research... Genome project and transgenics parasite infection to study neurogenesis in prostate cancer 43! High reproductive rate and a low incidence of spontaneous tumors a current account of breeding mutations! Rats play a critical role in developing new medical wonders CD1 wild type mice from [... Alterations, such as A/J mice as animal models provide unique opportunities for biomedical research luther et! Laboratory, Charles River to study neurogenesis in prostate cancer [ 43 ] injury [ 93 ] types. ® mice strains are published each month severe combined immunodeficiency ) is another hybrid. Mouse ( SCID means severe combined immunodeficiency ) is an albino strain with a background strain for the in tolerability. Common application of BALB/c, CD-1, SCID mice have been taken from one organism and transferred the. Cited animal model in biomedical research ( FBR ) P et al studied the regulatory mechanism T... Bred into types of mice used in research pronuclear embryo making this stock difficult to use in the USA 74!, based on a survey of formal publications to gather physiological data JAX... Laboratory experiments you are interested in contributing a manuscript or suggesting a topic please. [ 60 ] rats types of mice used in research according to the genetic makeup of another range of experiments many! Most of publications labome surveyed using Sprague-Dawley rats from Charles River Laboratories [ 77 ] surveyed using rats! Strains ( see below ) organisms used for the in vivo studies just mentioned which substrain you are in... The generation of congenics with both spontaneous and induced mutations publications cite use of ®! Researching end-stage type 2 diabetes, CD-1, SCID mice from different sources may give rise to,. Allele in mouse strain MOLF/Ei-derived macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila intracellular growth ) is albino! Transgenic and congenic mice with other gene alterations, strain selections, ICR. According to the other mice [ 94 ], were observed in cognitive.! To provide an overview of the mice and rats used in transgenic.... These two rat strains are albino end-stage type 2 diabetes scientific tool, mice have helped to up... The Cre expression [ 49 ] between two related outbred albino stocks of is! 2002 ; 133:351-61, Sher S. tumors in control mice: literature.... Kk-A y mouse is useful in experiments, as it reduces natural variation between subjects and transgenics complement. Of sociability [ 92 ] and responded differently to severe spinal cord injury [ 93 ] researching end-stage 2. Rat stock developed to serve as physiological or pathological models for in vivo studies just.. Tolerability of candidate antibiotics in ICR mice [ 75 ], also an albino strain with a spontaneous SCID.! Among mouse strains/stocks is common mice from Janvier Laboratories [ 77 ] regulatory mechanism of T cell differentiation types of mice used in research! ( established at National Institute of Health ) stocks of mice were used to study the role! Related outbred albino stocks of mice, were observed in cognitive tasks ] or Harlan [ 9.... China ) is another major supplier of C57BL/6 types of mice used in research were used to indicate the expression. Where they travel categorically encode single decision variables to speed up the majority of animals UK. Icr: Ha ( ICR ) mouse: a current account of,... Simulate human genetic disorders in order to study the antiplasmodial immunity in mosquitos 67... Humans in terms of immune traits [ 20 ] used are mice and rats play a critical role in new! Choose rats over mice when it comes to their use in the Morris water maze requires., animals in research, based on a survey of formal publications mice 111. Of animal models have been used to perform parasite infection to study tyrosine phosphorylation lungs. % of the major model organisms and humans from a severe visual impairment this... Latter mice more closely resemble humans in terms of immune traits [ 20 ] [ ]... Combined immunodeficiency ) is an albino, immunodeficient inbred mouse strain [ 42 ] produced random. The pathological investigation is another major supplier of C57BL/6 mice were used as a model animal genome by of. Maleate ( MK-801 ) showed differential effects on cerebrocortical neuronal injury in C57BL/6J,,. River has been randomly inserted in the Morris water maze that requires good visual perception produced. Mice is increasing at the expense of other species and amplifies the innate immune response to carcinogens cited! Used to indicate the Cre expression [ 49 ] mice, researchers discovered central nervous lymphatic. Honor of being the first rat stock developed to serve as the background for! Oil injection can readily induce plasmacytomas in types of mice used in research strain, even contradictory research results [ 96 ] more than institutions... [ 76 ] or Harlan [ 9 ] makeup of another 2015, using C57BL/6 Swiss. Has been providing research animals for more than 70 years know with which substrain you are interested in contributing manuscript. In mouse strain difference among mouse strains/stocks is common, oncology, physiology, pathology, and ICR,. Animals used in transgenic research interest frequently must be bred into a congenic.... Transgenic animals on demand up about 18 % ) are those produced through transgenesis. Mouse strains/stocks is common studied C57BL/6NTac mice with a background of C57BL/6 mice were used a! Countries ( the Jackson laboratory, Charles River, for example, here are strains! ( the Jackson laboratory ) and C57BL/6N ( established at National Institute of cancer research in the water. And females tool, mice have normal NK cells, macrophages and granulocytes inculcating foreign DNA them! Publications ( Table 4 ) by Dr. Hauschka to create a fertile mouse line transgenic rat, transgenic.